Modern-day operating systems like the latest Microsoft Windows and Linux distributions usually come with vulnerabilities that are complex and subtle. However, when these vulnerabilities are exploited by competent attackers, they can affect the organization’s security and expose you to critical damages.
This is why most organizations need to have knowledge about advanced penetration testing. However, only a few IT security analysts and cybersecurity enthusiasts have the skill set needed for detecting why a complex vulnerability occurs and the way to write an exploit to compromise it. But it is important to maintain exploit development skill sets no matter how complex a vulnerability is.
In this blog, we will break down everything you need to know about exploit development, from what are exploits to how to write an exploit.
What Are Exploits?
An exploit is most commonly some form of data, software, or command sequence that uses a vulnerability in pursuit of the attacker’s nefarious purposes, such as triggering unintentional behavior or gaining access to valuable data. Vulnerabilities usually get publicly shared on the Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) list once they come to light.
Exploits seek out security flaws in an OS, computer system, software, etc. Software developers sometimes find out about exploits only after they are used by attackers, and issue a patch to make the vulnerability unusable.
What Are the Types of Exploits?
Exploits are divided into five categories:
- Physical site
From these categories, vulnerabilities can then be split into two groups, namely known vulnerabilities and zero-day exploits.
Known vulnerabilities: This is a type of vulnerability that has already been documented by security researchers. Although known vulnerabilities are usually patched, it can still pose a threat due to slow patching.
Zero-day exploits: These are the types of vulnerabilities that have not been reported to the public or listed on the CVE. Cyber criminals discover these flaws before a patch can be issued and take advantage of the security gap. At times, the developer may not even know about the vulnerability.
How to Recognize an Exploit Attack
Since exploits take advantage of security loopholes in software, a user does not have any way of knowing whether they are affected until it is too late. Therefore, it is best to update your software and install security patches that are released by the software developer.
Although you may not notice when a malware sneaks in, you are likely going to feel the effects. Some of the common signs of malware infections are:
- Unexplained changed settings
- Slow performance
- Loss of storage space
- Frequent crashes or freezes
- Lots of pop-ups or ads where they should not be
Once you notice any of these signs, you need to do a virus scan right away.
How to Write Exploits
Before we delve deep into the steps for writing exploits, you should keep in mind that the programming language that you write an exploit in is not that important. This means that learning about vulnerability research is different from learning about programming language. Although Python is a good language that you can use to write exploits, this does not mean you should use Python alone for exploit writing.
Here are the steps you can follow when writing exploits:
- Discover and evaluate an application for any weakness.
- Connect the application with a debugger and then attempt to find out if you can or cannot overwrite the return value by offering a particular input to the vulnerable application.
- If this is possible, try to automate the procedure by using any scripting language like Python to help simplify your work.
- Try to discover the address from the DLLs loaded in the RAM where you can insert the Shellcode and then import the execution flow to the address.
Reasons Why You Should Learn About Exploit Development
Personal: The feeling that you get when making an exploit or finding a weakness is unique. During exploit development, you start to think outside the box and create your own art.
Objectives: In some cases, you need to build your own exploit, and by having this knowledge, you will be ahead of lots of professionals.
Financial: Nowadays, most vendors are going to pay you if you email them and inform them about a vulnerability in their program or systems.
Explore Exploit Development with CodeRed
Exploit development has a vast scope of study since cyberattacks are constantly on the rise. To keep up, you should opt for EC-Council CodeRed’s exploit development course, which covers every advanced security research institution and their various tools and methods for exploit development. In this course, you will learn about exploit development fundamentals and take a hands-on look at reverse engineering and exploit development practices to make you more knowledgeable in this field.
By the end of this course, you will have knowledge about how to exploit application weaknesses by writing exploit codes that are effective and reliable.
Learn more about CodeRed: https://codered.eccouncil.org/